L. Wyrostek, Rod Dragow-Sasow na Wegrzech i Rusi Halickiej. Krakow 1932


The Popiels


small hamlet existed in the early 15th century that was located South-West of Sanok, between Kostarowce and Jurowce.   According to sources it was known as Podleshe, Podlansie or Poleze. After some time its name changed to Popiele and with this name it became a part of Jurowce. (Shown as such on Jablonowski's map, sheet 4,  on the other hand, The Geografic Dictionary VIII, page 785 counts Popiele in as a part of Srogow Gorny).

Aforementioned hamlet was in hands of a Sas-Popiel family, which was described in the book of Dr. Bohdan Barwinski (Konashevich family in Przemyls land in XV and XVI century. Notes of Shevtchenko Society vol. C. Anniversary collection by Kiril Studinski, part II. Historic Works, Lviv 1930 pages 10-175 ) shall be welcomed with appreciation as first of kind work by Society. The author threw light upon matters of Konashevich family, giving also supporten on good foundation genesis of the coat of arms called PRZESTRZAL, which is strongly related to the coat of arms SAS in Przemysl Podkarpacie.) Since results of this work give details of the origin and presence of the clan in XV-XVI centuries, we will limit this work to several remarks of general nature, related to roots, migration and coat of arms relation of the Popiels. It is necessary to mention that the history of our clan contains a great deal of moments common for other noble families.

Presence of the Popiels in Sanok area falls on years 1424-1431. First we see Ivan sued several times in the court of law, later, in 1427 whole host of squires shows up at the court of law at the occasion of
sale of Podlesie to certain Pelka of Jurowce. (A.G.Z. XI no. 84, 114,214). Preliminary bill of sale was prepared by three brothers in companion of their sons: Chodor with sons Truchan and Lucz, Fil with sons Hiryn (Hryn), Truchan, Michal and Ivan and Jakub with sons Dymitr, Tysz and Michal – together 12 persons. The bill became legal as late as four years after the court gathering, since the Popiels must have obtained King's consent to the sale, what happened in 1431 (lb. XI, no. 461, Naruszewicz Folders XV, no. 24,25).

In regard with the above clause it is necessary to mention, that the clause does not mean any special restrictions towards Popiels, or their diminished sovereignty or any kind of special dependence from the King and his subprefects. It was meant to examine by the King’s administration that the sale, exchange or lease will not aggravate certain defense services due to the King as a liege Lord. The buyer, i.e. Pelka of Jurowice was to take over Popiels’ duties toward the King and the Treasure as were prescribed in the records.

The sale of Podlesie, which shortly afterwards became Popiele, was caused by a good economical conjuncture. The family was granted in 1414 certain lands nearby Hubice in Drohobycz region, by the king Jagiello (Barwinski, p. 52-53), and in 1427 the King enlarged the grant by adding some uninhabited lands on the shores of Ratyczna River, small contributory to Tysmienica River. Description of metes and bounds in the King’s document indicates that these land were of significant size, containing most probably entire basin of Ratyczna River; an article describing military duties from the lands, required from the Popiels to attend the war expeditions with a train of four mounted archers. The sale of the hamlet was therefore the result of moving of the family from the Sanok region to the Sambor region.

Making any suppositions, we have to pay attention to the following; because the exact date of the first grant in Sambor region does not exist as well as any record of the grant of Podlesie to the Popiels although the Popiels had an act of ownership for these lands (A.G.Z., no. 461), the question may arise, which of these location shall be considered as the clan nest. The author of the monograph votes for Drohobycz, considering Sanok lands as supplementary endowment of the Popiels. (page 88).

Clear and sure evidence exists that the clan nest was in Sanok region. To support this let’s emphasize that the general tendency of the time was migration to the East. Same sign could be noticed with the Tarnawskis and Mrochowskis and there was a great number of families selling their lands and migrating to Sambor and Halich regions. (Kosc sold Jablonice to the Tarnawskis. A.G.Z. XI, no. 1807. After some time the Blazowskis from the Sambor region laid claim to Jablonice as their heritage. The owners of Markowce in the Sambor region received Monasterz in the Sambor region from the king Jagiello, therefore they sold their clan’s lands in 1425 and moved into new lands. (Prohaska, Mat. Archiwalne, no. 56. Matr. Sum. IV Supp. 372. Woloch Laczko sold Blizna to the bishop of Przemysl in 1402 A.G.Z. VII no. 23. Similarly rescinded from Hodle Ladomir Woloch, granted new lands in 1377. A.G.Z. VII, no. 13.). Let’s add that the name or nickname “Popiele” seems indicate certain relations with nearby village Pella, later called Pielnia. Finally, the most important matter, the granting act for Podlesie contained the clause about King’s permission for sale of the lands; such clause must have been only in former grants, when Ruthenia was given new laws. Undoubtedly, the clan resided for long time, since the aforementioned members were mentioned in the court document last time in thirties. Going back to their common ancestor, we would have to accept period 1360-1380 as supposed time of the beginning of the Popiels’ home in Sanok region.

In terms of the clan origin, we have only some indications in the names of the members. Ivan, Chodor and Jakub are common names. Only Fil appears on this side of Karpaty among Walachian. In next generation we have the names appearing only in the region of Podkarpacie as a Walachian-Ruthenian mix (Desz, Tisz, Chocz). Later we have distinctive Walachian reminiscences in names such as Rad, Radowic, which shows up in different times and different lineages of the clan. The factor deciding about there is the coat of arms SAS; because it shows again a number of common features with other clans, we will take care of it separately.
After migration of the Popiels to Drohobycz area, what happened before 1427, since certain “Hryczko de Ratyczna” signed his name on the homage meeting, the sons of Jakub, Chodor and Fil started manage their separate parts of land. Later, some of them sold their properties to brothers or cousins, or strangers (Rybotyccy z Hubic), moving to the neighboring areas and buying other lands as for example in Rolow and Komarowce (A.G.Z. XIII, no. 1117, 1614, 1640, 2150, 2316, 2780, 4064, 5161, 6103, 6105, 6128, 6193, 6202, 6307, 6328-30).

Corollary of particular lineages is difficult since the members of the family usually had many sons and many of the surnames repeats in each branch. Although they used to have by-names majority of which was rather nicknames (Barwinski, o.c. p. 51, 90, 92). To that type belong: Chwosciki, Czoboty, Petelczyce, others, patronymic- Radowice, Konaszewice etc. Name Konasz, which the Author relates to Ruthenian Kuzma is rather a diminutive of Conrad
Using double surnames of which one belongs to the Western type and the other to the Eastern type, indicates that the bearer Latinizes or Polonizes. We have no more precise information about Konasz, and the Clan character indicates undoubtedly its Eastern cultural roots, however, the sources mostly did not record these additions and finally it would be inaccurate to identify persons and relations or Clan background (the Author deliberates on page 66 note 3 upon degrees of family relations, for example filiaster, sororius (lat.), etc. It is necessary to emphasize that medieval records did not set any rules in that respect; “filiaster” in most cases means “ a son of brother”, but it also could be first or second cousin. “Sororius” might translate respectively).

Giving attention to the Popiels’ economic activities it is worth to note that they established a village Ratyczna on the uninhabited banks of Ratyczna River. But as soon as in 40-ties of 15 century, new hamlet called Popiele was established next to Ratyczna and after a while, the new hamlet absorbed Ratyczna entirely.
The clansmen established on their own lands in circa second half of the 15 century new hamlet called Kotow (today Bania Kotowska). The area was rich in a salt which was a medieval equivalent of today’s oil, they opened a number of saltworks. However, their source of richness was also a source of jalousy of their liege lord, the King. A special commission was established in the beginning of 16 century, to examine the Popiels’ rights to Kotow. (In 1515 Kotow was recorded in the land registry as a property of the Kingdom. Zrodla dziejowe XVIII/1 page 140. Repossession of the village by the King was described by the commissioners in 1565 . Zerela II, page 48). Of course it was a legal trick, since the lands was above any doubt within metes and bounds of former grant. The matter was not even to preserve ius regale (King’s jurisdiction) or compensate for it, but the matter was obviously to repossess the estate because of the saltworks. Finally, Kotow was incorporated into estate of Sambor, which become a part of Queen’s Bona private estate, undoubtedly personally interested in the action. It was not earlier than immediately after ingress of the King Zygmunt August, successor of Zygmunt Stary, the estate was
restituted to the Popiels in 1549, however, without saltworks and neighboring forest, sufficient to maintain the industry.
It is necessary to add, that in 1519, the Popiels were granted a substantial King’s office as hereditary sub-prefects of Kotowo, probably as compensation for loss of the estate (Matr. Sum. IV, no. 3072).

A famous Cossack general Piotr Sahajdaczny was from Konaszewicz Popiel line.


Translation from Polish to English: sp

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